Jack Russell Terrier Dog Breed
- General Appearance:
- The Jack Russell Terrier is a small, agile, brave, principally white-bodied terrier that is known for fox hunting and other small animals. The Jack Russell Terrier comes in two distinct variations: the long-legged version and the short-legged version. Short-legged Jack Russells are often called "shorties" and are recognized as the Russell Terrier, or Jack Russell Terriers, while the long-legged variation is called the Parson Jack Russell Terrier. They are both small dogs and can be a variety of wiry, smooth, and multicolored coats. They are predominantly white, with patches of brown and black, often covering part of the face. The Jack Russell Terrier has short drop ears and a tail that is usually cropped just long enough to grab it out of a fox hole. They are sturdy and muscular, well adapted to work hard. The smooth coat has an outer-coat that is short and stiff. In the rough coat the outer-coat is longer. The broken variety is used to describe both dogs with outer-coats of different lengths or dogs that have longer hair on specific parts of the body.
- Other Names:Russell Jacks
- Country Of Origin:Great Britain
- Dog Group Kennel Club:Terrier
- Predominantly white with tan, black or brown markings. Patches of color often appear on the main body, tail, and head. Ears are often colored, with a blaze up the front of the face. At least 51% of the body should be white.
- Jack Russell Terriers are vocal, alert, lively and bold. They are very affectionate and playful with family, and love attention. They require training or a job, as they need adequate exercise. They are very energetic and can be very excitable. Jack Russell Terriers can be scrappy with other dogs, but can be socialized and trained to be okay with other pets. Their natural hunting instinct brings out their aggressive nature.
- Should be free, lively and well coordinated with straight action in front and behind.
- Care and training:
- The Jack Russell Terrier requires minimal grooming. They need regular brushing with a firm bristle brush. Bathing should only be done when necessary. They are easily over-fed and have a tendency to become overweight. Jack Russell Terriers should receive daily exercise or outdoor activity. If not given consistent exercise, training, or a job to do, the Jack Russell can become destructive and edgy if confined.
The Jack Russell Terrier can be difficult, determined, and willful. They require firm and consistent guidance, as they are easily distracted. It is important for them to know whom their master is or they will take charge. Early socialization may moderately temper their aggressiveness. Obedience training is highly recommended. The Jack Russell displays talents in such areas as hunting, tracking, and agility.
- Overall Exercise:
- 60 - 80 minutes per day.
This dog, being an active little terrier, should have lots of exercise. They like nothing better than a long walk where they can get off the lead and can pick up a scent.
- Feeding Requirements:
- As a breed the Jack Russell Terrier is easy to please, they are not fussy eaters.
- Personal Protection:Medium
- Suitability As Guard Dog:Low
- Level of Aggression:Low
- Compatibility With Other Animals:Low
- Suitability for Children:Medium
- Often Docked?Yes
- Average Litter Size:4-8
- Life Expectancy (yrs):13-15
- Health issues:
- Jack Russell Terrier can suffer from dislocated kneecaps (luxating patellas), eye problems, deafness, and Legg-Perthes disease, a disease of the hip joints.
- In 1819 a fox runner and member of the British Kennel Club by the name of Reverend John Russell came across a terrier who he developed into the Jack Russell Terrier over the course of sixty years until his death at the age of 88. He owned a crossbred terrier by the name of "Trump", which he bred with bull-and-terrier breeds that were used for bull baiting to increase tenacity and aggression towards prey. He then bred in foxhounds, as well as "pocket beagles", which helped in evening out the temper of the breed. John Russell wanted a breed that was small enough to go to ground after a fox, but wouldn't kill the prey. Often times, however, the breed's tenacity overtook their ability to corner the prey, and sometimes Jack Russell Terriers would kill the fox - taking away the sport for the hunters.